Хэрэглэгч:Timur/Ноорог/Риманы цогцос

Чөлөөт нэвтэрхий толь — Википедиагаас
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In Riemannian geometry, a Riemannian manifold (M,g) (with Riemannian metric g) is a real differentiable manifold M in which each tangent space is equipped with an inner product g in a manner which varies smoothly from point to point. This allows one to define various notions such as angles, lengths of curves, areas (or volumes), curvature, gradients of functions and divergence of vector fields. In other words, a Riemannian manifold is a differentiable manifold in which the tangent space at each point is a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. The terms are named after Bernhard Riemann.

Оршил[засварлах | edit source]

The tangent bundle of a smooth manifold M (or indeed, any vector bundle over a manifold) is, at a fixed point, just a vector space and each such space can carry an inner product. If such a collection of inner products on the tangent bundle of a manifold varies smoothly as one traverses the manifold, then concepts that were defined only pointwise at each tangent space can be extended to yield analogous notions over finite regions of the manifold. For example, a smooth curve α(t): [0, 1] → M has tangent vector α′(t0) in the tangent space TM(t0) at any point t0 ∈ (0, 1), and each such vector has length ||α′(t0)||, where ||·|| denotes the norm induced by the inner product on TM(t0). The integral of these lengths gives the length of the curve α:

In many instances, in order to pass from a linear-algebraic concept to a differential-geometric one, the smoothness requirement is very important.

Every smooth submanifold of Rn has an induced Riemannian metric g: the inner product on each tangent space is the restriction of the inner product on Rn. In fact, as follows from the Nash embedding theorem, all Riemannian manifolds can be realized this way. In particular one could define Riemannian manifold as a metric space which is isometric to a smooth submanifold of Rn with the induced intrinsic metric, where isometry here is meant in the sense of preserving the length of curves. This definition might theoretically not be flexible enough, but it is quite useful to build the first geometric intuitions in Riemannian geometry.

Риманы цогцос метрик огторгуй мэтээр[засварлах | edit source]

Usually a Riemannian manifold is defined as a smooth manifold with a smooth section of the positive-definite quadratic forms on the tangent bundle. Then one has to work to show that it can be turned to a metric space:

If γ: [a, b] → M is a continuously differentiable curve in the Riemannian manifold M, then we define its length L(γ) in analogy with the example above by

With this definition of length, every connected Riemannian manifold M becomes a metric space (and even a length metric space) in a natural fashion: the distance d(x, y) between the points x and y of M is defined as

d(x,y) = inf{ L(γ) : γ is a continuously differentiable curve joining x and y}.

Even though Riemannian manifolds are usually "curved", there is still a notion of "straight line" on them: the geodesics. These are curves which locally join their points along shortest paths.

Assuming the manifold is compact, any two points x and y can be connected with a geodesic whose length is d(x,y). Without compactness, this need not be true. For example, in the punctured plane R2 \ {0}, the distance between the points (−1, 0) and (1, 0) is 2, but there is no geodesic realizing this distance.

Шинж чанар[засварлах | edit source]

In Riemannian manifolds, the notions of geodesic completeness, topological completeness and metric completeness are the same: that each implies the other is the content of the Hopf-Rinow theorem.

Олон нийтийн соёлд[засварлах | edit source]

In his song Lobachevsky, comedian Tom Lehrer is asked to write a paper on "Analytic and Algebraic Topology of Locally Euclidean Metrizations of Infinitely Differentiable Riemannian Manifolds," to which he replies, "This, I know from nothing."

Мөн үзэх[засварлах | edit source]

Ном хэвлэл[засварлах | edit source]

  • Jurgen Jost, Riemannian Geometry and Geometric Analysis, 3rd ed. (2002), Springer-Verlag, Berlin ISBN 3-540-42627-2.