The 2012 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for national football teams organised by UEFA. The final tournament was hosted by Poland and Ukraine between 8 June and 1 July 2012. It was the first time that either nation hosted the tournament. This bid was chosen by UEFA's Executive Committee in 2007. Euro 2012 set the record for both the highest aggregate attendance (1,440,896) and the highest average attendance per game (46,481) under the 16-team format (since 1996).
The final tournament featured 16 nations, the last European Championship to do so (from Euro 2016 onward, there will be 24 finalists). Qualification was contested by 51 nations between August 2010 and November 2011 to determine the remaining 14 finalists. The tournament is played across eight venues, four in each host country, five of which were newly built for the tournament. Aside from venues, the host nations have also invested heavily in improving infrastructure, such as railways and roads, at UEFA's request.
In the final match at the Olympic Stadium in Kiev, Ukraine, Spain won the tournament by a score of 4–0 over Italy. Spain became the first team to win two consecutive European Championships, and the first European international team to win three straight major tournament titles (UEFA Euro 2008, 2010 FIFA World Cup). Since Spain had already gained entry to the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup by winning the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the runners-up Italy qualified.
Euro 2012 was the second consecutive European Championship (after UEFA Euro 2008 held in Austria and Switzerland) to see none of the hosts emerge from the group stage after co-hosts Poland and Ukraine failed to qualify for the quarter-finals.
- 1 Зохион байгуулагчийн сонгон шалгаруулалт
- 2 Сонгон шалгаруулалт
- 3 Venues
- 4 Teams
- 5 Match ball
- 6 Match officials
- 7 Results
- 8 Statistics
- 9 Promotion
- 10 Concerns and controversies
- 11 Sponsorship
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Зохион байгуулагчийн сонгон шалгаруулалт[засварлах | edit source]
The hosting of the event was initially contested by five bids representing seven countries: Croatia–Hungary, Greece, Italy, Poland–Ukraine, and Turkey. After an initial consideration of the bid data in 2005 by UEFA both the Greek and Turkish bids were eliminated from the process to leave three candidates. This was followed by a second round of the selection process which among other included visits by UEFA to all candidates. On 18 April 2007, the Poland–Ukraine bid was chosen by a vote of the UEFA Executive Committee at a meeting in Cardiff.
Poland–Ukraine became the third successful joint bid for the European Championship, after those of Belgium–Netherlands (2000) and Austria–Switzerland (2008). Their bid received an absolute majority of votes, and was therefore announced the winner without requiring a second round. Italy, which received the remaining votes, had been considered favourites to win the hosting but incidents of fan violence and a match fixing scandal were widely cited as factors behind their failure.
There were some later alterations from the initial bid plan regarding the venues before UEFA confirmed the eight host cities in 2009. During the preparation process in Poland and Ukraine UEFA repeatedly expressed concern about their preparation to host the event, with different candidates reported as being alternative hosts if they did not improve; however in the end UEFA affirmed their selection.
Сонгон шалгаруулалт[засварлах | edit source]
The draw for the UEFA Euro 2012 qualifying competition took place in Warsaw on 7 February 2010. Fifty-one teams entered to compete for the fourteen remaining places in the finals, alongside co-hosts Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.) and Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.). The teams were divided into nine groups, with the draw using the new UEFA national team coefficient for the first time in order to determine the seedings. As defending champions, Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.) was automatically top seeded. The qualifying process began in August 2010 and concluded in November 2011. At the conclusion of the qualifying group stage in October 2011, the nine group winners qualified automatically, along with the highest ranked second placed team. The remaining eight second placed teams contested two-legged play-offs, and the four winners qualified for the finals.
Twelve of the sixteen finalists participated at the previous tournament in 2008. England and Denmark made their return to the Euro, having last participated in 2004, while Republic of Ireland returned after a twenty-four year absence to make their second appearance at a European Championship. One of the co-hosts, Ukraine, made their debut as an independent nation (before 1992 Ukraine participated as part of the Union.html Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.)). With the exception of Serbia – according to UEFA's ranking at the end of the qualifying stage – Europe's sixteen highest-ranked teams all successfully qualified for the tournament.
Шалгарсан багууд[засварлах | edit source]
The following sixteen teams qualified for the finals:
- 1 Bold indicates champion for that year
- 2 Italics indicate (co-)host for that year
- 4 from 1960–88, Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.) competed in the European Championship final tournament as the Union.html Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.) and in 1992 as the of Independent States.html Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.)
- 5 from 1960–80, Republic.html Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.) competed in the European Championship final tournament as Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.)
Хэсэгт хуваарилах сугалаа[засварлах | edit source]
The draw for the final tournament took place on 2 December 2011 at the Ukraine Palace of Arts in Kiev, Ukraine. The hour-long ceremony was hosted by Olga Freimut and Piotr Sobczyński, television presenters from the two host countries.
As was the case for the 2004 and 2008 finals, the sixteen finalists were divided into four seeding pots, using the UEFA national team coefficient ranking. The pot allocations were based on the UEFA national team coefficient rankings of the sixteen finalists at the end of the qualifying competition in November 2011. Each nation's coefficient was generated by calculating:
- 40% of the average ranking points per game earned in the UEFA Euro 2012 qualifying stage.
- 40% of the average ranking points per game earned in the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying stage and final tournament.
- 20% of the average ranking points per game earned in the UEFA Euro 2008 qualifying stage and final tournament.
Aside from the coefficient, three teams were automatically placed in Pot 1. Ukraine and Poland were both assigned to Pot 1 as the two host nations, despite the fact that their rankings were the two lowest in the tournament; this also occurred in 2008 when the co-hosts Switzerland and Austria were also ranked below all other qualified teams. As defending champions, Spain were also automatically assigned to Pot 1, though their UEFA ranking at the time of the draw was coincidentally also the best.
In the draw procedure, one team from each pot was drawn into each of the four groups. The draw also determined which place in the group teams in pots 2–4 would take (e.g. A2, A3 or A4) to create the match schedule. With Poland were automatically assigned in advance to A1, and Ukraine to D1, Pot 1 only had two teams as Spain and the Netherlands were to be drawn into position one in either group B or C. The balls were drawn by four former players who had each been part of European Championship winning teams: Horst Hrubesch, Marco van Basten, Peter Schmeichel and Zinedine Zidane.
- 1 Co-hosts Poland (coefficient 23,806, rank 28) and Ukraine (coefficient 28,029, rank 15) were automatically assigned to A1 and D1, and therefore were not in the draw.
- 2 Defending champions were automatically assigned to Pot 1.
Venues[засварлах | edit source]
Eight cities were selected by UEFA as host venues. In a return to the format used at Euro 1992, Euro 1996 and Euro 2008, each of the four groups' matches were played in two stadiums. Host cities Warsaw, Gdańsk, Wrocław, Poznań, Kiev, and Lviv are all popular tourist destinations, unlike Donetsk and Kharkiv, the latter of which replaced Dnipropetrovsk as a host city in 2009.
In order to meet UEFA's requirement for football infrastructure improvements, five new stadiums were built and opened in advance of the tournament. The remaining three stadiums (in Kiev, Poznań and Kharkiv) underwent major renovations in order to meet UEFA's infrastructure standards. Three of the stadiums are categorized as UEFA's highest category stadiums. The transport infrastructure in Poland and Ukraine was also extensively modified on the request of UEFA to cope with the large influx of football fans.
UEFA organized fan zones in the eight host cities. They were located in the center of each city, with all 31 matches shown live on a total of 24 giant screens. The zones enabled supporters to come together in a secure and controlled environment. The Warsaw Fan Zone occupied 120,000 square meters and accommodated 100,000 visitors. In all, the fans zones had a 20% increase in capacity compared to Euro 2008.
Each team has a "team base camp" for its stay between the matches. From an initial list of thirty-eight potential locations (twenty-one in Poland, seventeen in Ukraine), the national associations chose their locations in 2011. The teams will both train and reside in these locations throughout the tournament, traveling to games staged away from their bases.
Цэнгэлдэхүүд[засварлах | edit source]
A total of 31 matches will be played during Euro 2012, with Ukraine hosting 16 of them and Poland 15.
Built for tournament
Built for tournament
Built for tournament
|3 matches in Group A
(incl. opening match),
1 quarter-final and
|3 matches in Group C and
|3 matches in Group A||3 matches in Group C|
Built for tournament
Built for tournament
|3 matches in Group D,
1 quarter-final and
|3 matches in Group D,
1 quarter-final and
|3 matches in Group B||3 matches in Group B|
Ticketing[засварлах | edit source]
Tickets for the venues were sold directly by UEFA via its website, or are to be distributed by the football associations of the 16 finalists. Applications had to be made during March 2011 for the 1.4 million tickets available for the 31 tournament matches. Over 20,000 were forecast to cross the Poland–Ukraine border each day during the tournament. Over 12 million applications were received, which represented a 17% increase on the 2008 finals, and an all-time record for the UEFA European Championship. Owing to this over-subscription for the matches, lotteries were carried out to allocate tickets. Prices varied from €30 (£25) (for a seat behind the goals at a group match) to €600 (£513) (for a seat in the main stand at the final). In addition to individual match tickets, fans could buy packages to see either all matches played by one team, or all matches at one specific venue.
Broadcasting[засварлах | edit source]
According to UEFA requirements, TP will ensure approximately 2х70 Gbit/sec data communication speed from Polish stadiums and 2х140 Gbit/sec between Poland and Ukraine. This is required due to the fact that the matches are planned to be broadcast in HD quality. The multilateral production will utilise 31 cameras to cover the action on and around the pitch at every match, with additional cameras following activities around the game, such as team arrivals at the stadiums, interviews, and media conferences. The official Euro 2012 broadcasting centre will be located at the Expo XXI International Centre in Warsaw.
Teams[засварлах | edit source]
All of the participating football associations had to submit squads of twenty-three players, three of whom are goalkeepers, by 29 May 2012. Thirteen teams are staying in Poland and three in Ukraine. A total of €196 million was offered to the 16 teams competing in this tournament, a increase from the €184 million in the previous tournament. Each team will receive €8 million in start money and then receive extra money based on their performances:
- Champions: €7.5 million
- Runner-up: €4.5 million
- Reaching the semi-finals: €3 million
- Reaching the quarter-finals: €2 million
- Finishing in third place in a group: €1 million
- Winning a group match: €1 million
- Drawing a group match: €0.5 million
Match ball[засварлах | edit source]
The Adidas Tango 12 is the official match ball of UEFA Euro 2012. The ball is named after the original Adidas Tango family of footballs; however, the Tango 12 and its variations have a completely new design. Variations of the ball have been used in other contemporary competitions including the Africa Cup of Nations and the Summer Olympics. It is designed to be easier to dribble and control than the reportedly unpredictable Adidas Jabulani used at the 2010 FIFA World Cup.
Match officials[засварлах | edit source]
On 20 December 2011, UEFA named twelve referees and four fourth officials for Euro 2012. On 27 March 2012, UEFA issued the full list of 80 referees to be used in Euro 2012, including the assistant referees, the additional assistant referees, and the four reserve assistant referees. Each refereeing team consisted of five match officials from the same country: one main referee, two assistant referees, and two additional assistant referees. All of the main referees, additional assistant referees, and fourth officials were FIFA referees, and the assistant referees (including the four reserve assistant referees) were FIFA assistant referees. For each refereeing team, a third assistant referee from each country was named to remain on standby until the start of the tournament to take the place of a colleague if required. In two cases, for the French and Slovenian refereeing teams, the standby assistant referees took the place of one of the assistant referees before the start of the tournament. Continuing the experiments carried out in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League, the two additional assistant referees were used on the goal line for the first time in European Championship history with approval from the International Football Association Board.
- Загвар:Legend inline Final referee; Only referee assigned to four matches.
Results[засварлах | edit source]
UEFA announced the schedule for the 31 matches of the final tournament in October 2010, with the final confirmation of kick-offs times being affirmed following the tournament draw in December 2011.
Group stage[засварлах | edit source]
The teams finishing in the top two positions in each of the four groups progressed to the quarter-finals, while the bottom two teams were eliminated from the tournament. If two or more teams are equal on points on completion of the group matches, the following criteria are applied to determine the rankings:
- Higher number of points obtained in the matches played between the teams in question;
- Superior goal difference resulting from the matches played between the teams in question (if more than two teams finish equal on points);
- Higher number of goals scored in the matches played between the teams in question (if more than two teams finish equal on points);
- If, after having applied criteria 1 to 3 to more than two teams, two teams still have an equal ranking, criteria 1 to 3 are reapplied exclusively to the matches between the two teams in question to determine the final rankings of the two teams. If this procedure does not lead to a decision, criteria 5 to 10 apply in the order given;
- Superior goal difference in all group matches;
- Higher number of goals scored in all group matches;
- If two teams that have the same number of points, goal difference, and goals scored finish their last group match against each other in a draw, and provided no other teams within the group have the same number of points, the ranking of the two teams in question is determined by penalty shoot-out. Otherwise, criteria 8 to 10 apply in the order given;
- Position in the UEFA national team coefficient ranking system;
- Fair play conduct of the teams (final tournament);
- Drawing of lots.
Note: As all teams have different UEFA national team coefficients, the last two tie-breakers (fair play conduct and drawing of lots) would never have applied in this tournament.
|Key to colours in group tables|
|Team progressed to the quarter-finals|
Group A[засварлах | edit source]
Czech Republic were the first team to win a group with a negative goal difference
Group B[засварлах | edit source]
Group C[засварлах | edit source]
Group D[засварлах | edit source]
Knockout stage[засварлах | edit source]
Quarter-finals[засварлах | edit source]
Semi-finals[засварлах | edit source]
Final[засварлах | edit source]
Statistics[засварлах | edit source]
Goalscorers[засварлах | edit source]
Awards[засварлах | edit source]
In the event of a tie, the Golden Boot will be awarded to the player with the most assists. In a further tie, the winner will be the player spending the least time playing in the tournament. Fernando Torres secured one assist, the same as Mario Gomez, but spent a total of 189 minutes on the pitch compared to 281 minutes by Mario Gomez of Germany.
Discipline[засварлах | edit source]
In the final tournament, a player is suspended for the next match in the competition for either getting red card or accumulating two yellow cards in two different matches. UEFA's Control and Disciplinary body has the ability to increase the automatic one match ban for a red card (e.g. for violent conduct). Single yellow card cautions were erased at the conclusion of the quarter-finals, and were not carried over to the semi-finals (so that a player could only be suspended for the final by getting a red card in the semi-final). Single yellow cards and suspensions for yellow card accumulations do not carry over to the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification tournament matches. The following players were suspended during the final tournament – for one or more games – as a result of red cards or yellow card accumulations:
Apart from discipline measures for yellow and red cards, UEFA fined the Football Union of Russia €120,000, €30,000, and €35,000 (three separate incidents); the German Football Association €10,000 and €25,000 (two separate incidents); the Croatian Football Federation €25,000 and €80,000 (two separate incidents); and The Football Association (England) €5,000 for spectator incidents. In addition to the €120,000 fine that the Football Union of Russia received for a spectator incident, UEFA also gave Үзүүлэлт - national football teams.com (англ.) a suspended six-point deduction in the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying tournament. Furthermore, the Portuguese Football Federation was fined €5,000 for delaying the start of the second half of the game against Germany. In addition to these, Danish striker Nicklas Bendtner was fined €100,000 and given a one match ban (to be applied in the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification tournament) for revealing his sponsored underpants, violating UEFA regulations, during the celebration of his second goal in the match against Portugal.
Penalty kicks[засварлах | edit source]
Not counting penalty shoot-outs, as of 28 June 2012, four penalties were awarded during the tournament. Giorgos Karagounis was the only player, who failed to convert his penalty, which occurred in the match against Poland.
Promotion[засварлах | edit source]
Trophy tour[засварлах | edit source]
The Henri Delaunay Trophy began a journey through the host cities seven weeks before the start of the tournament. A hundred days before the first match a 35.5-metre-high (116 ft) hot air balloon in the shape of the trophy was flown in Nyon, Switzerland and will visit 14 cities throughout the host countries, reminding spectators of the impending tournament. On 20 April 2012 the trophy tour started and visited the cities of Warsaw, Wrocław, Gdańsk, Poznań, Kraków, Katowice and Łódź. After the Polish cities, the trophy visited seven Ukrainian cities: Kiev, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Lviv, and Odesa.
Logo, slogan and theme songs[засварлах | edit source]
The competition slogan, Creating History Together (пол. Razem tworzymy przyszłość, literally, "Together we are creating the future", укр. Творимо історію разом, Tvorymo istoriyu razom), was announced along with the logo. The official logo for the tournament was unveiled at a special event at Mykhailivska Square, Kiev, on 14 December 2009. Designed by Portuguese group Brandia Central. It takes its visual identity from Wycinanki or Vytynanky, traditional form of paper cutting practised in rural areas of Poland and Ukraine. The art form symbolises the nature of the rural areas of both countries. As part of the event, landmark buildings in the eight host cities were illuminated with the tournament logo.
The official Euro 2012 song is "Endless Summer" by the German singer Oceana. In addition, UEFA has retained the melody that was composed by Rollo Armstrong of Faithless on its behalf for the 2008 tournament. The Republic of Ireland has also produced an official song: "The Rocky Road to Poland" recorded by a collaboration of Irish performers has already reached number 1 in Ireland. In Spain, the broadcasting company Mediaset España commissioned the song "No hay 2 sin 3", performed by David Bisbal and Cali & El Dandee and produced by RedOne.
When the teams walk out from the stadium and before the national anthems are played, "Heart of Courage" by Two Steps From Hell is played.[баримт хэрэгтэй] The tournament has also been associated with the song "Seven Nation Army" by The White Stripes, which has been played in the stadiums after every goal.
Merchandise and mascots[засварлах | edit source]
UEFA signed a worldwide licensing agreement with Warner Brothers Consumer Products to help promote the tournament. The agreement involved licensing to third parties for a variety of other merchandising items.
Also designed by Warner Bros. were the official tournament mascots, "Slavek and Slavko", twins that wore the national colours of the two host nations. The mascots were unveiled in December 2010, and so named following an online poll.
Concerns and controversies[засварлах | edit source]
After Poland and Ukraine were chosen by a vote of the UEFA Executive Committee as host countries for Euro 2012, several issues arose that jeopardized the Polish/Ukrainian host status.
In Ukraine there were financial difficulties related to stadium and infrastructure renovation related to the economic crisis. In Poland, issues arose related to corruption within the Polish Football Association. In April 2009 however, the president of UEFA, Michel Platini announced that all was on track and that he saw no major problems. After a UEFA delegation visited Ukraine in September 2011, he stated the country was "virtually ready for Euro 2012".
Especially in the UK, there were allegations about forthcoming racism at the tournament. The main cause of discussion was the BBC current affairs programme Panorama, entitled Euro 2012: Stadiums of Hate, which included recent footage of supporters chanting various antisemitic slogans and displays of white power symbols and banners in Poland, plus Nazi salutes and the beating of Asians in Ukraine. The documentary was first echoed in much of the British press, but was then attacked for being one-sided and unethical: critics included other British media outlets; anti-racism campaigners, black and Jewish community leaders in Poland; Polish and Ukrainian politicians and journalists; England fans visiting the host nations and Gary Lineker.
In response to Yulia Tymoshenko’s hunger strike and her mistreatment in a Ukrainian prison some European politicians and governments have announced they will boycott the tournament in Ukraine.
Ukraine has come under criticism from animal welfare organizations for killing stray cats and dogs in order to prepare for Euro 2012. Ukrainian Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources and Minister Of The Environment takes some actions to prevent killing animals but it still remains unclear how these measures will be enforced.
Another minor important issues were associated with FEMEN’s group protests against prostitution and sex tourism in Ukraine, and enormous raising hotel prices by many hoteliers in this country.
In total three nations were fined by UEFA for the racism of their fans: Spain, Croatia and Russia.
Sponsorship[засварлах | edit source]
UEFA announced ten global sponsors and three national sponsors for both Poland and Ukraine:
Global sponsors[засварлах | edit source]
The championships have twelve official global sponsors:
Event sponsors[засварлах | edit source]
Ukraine[засварлах | edit source]
Poland[засварлах | edit source]
References[засварлах | edit source]
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